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Research & Publishing

This guide will help you find resources related to writing and publishing.

ICMJE Citation Guidelines

This guide is based on the book Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. NLM also provides a Samples of Formatted References for quick reference.

There are several ways to list references and citations, but this guide is intended to provide a standardized format for the ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors).  Recommendations:

General Guidelines:
  • List references at the end of sentences or phrases inside parentheses. Example (1, 4-6).
  • List author names with the author’s last name followed by initials (maximum of 2 initials) and separate author names from each other by a comma and a space. Example: Fanning D, Bickett SN.
  • List all authors regardless of number.
  • Retain the spelling, abbreviations, and style for numbers used in the original article title, book title, parts of book, or other material.
  • For journal article titles and chapter titles in books, capitalize only the first letter of the first word in a title and subtitle.
  • For journal titles and book titles, capitalize all main words.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated, but books are not.
  • Reference the most specific part when possible, such as the monograph within the online database.
  • Use English names for months and abbreviate them using the first three letters, such as Jan.

Drug Databases

The URL you get when logged in to PCOM Library resources is specific to you at the moment you're using it. The link will not be usable by anyone else or access the same information.  Make sure you only use the company or vendor URL for your reference. For additional information about citing this type of resource please see Chapter 24 of Citing Medicine or #40 and #41 in Electronic Material from NLM Samples of Formatted References.

Specific database or Author(s). Title of Database [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher. Date of Publication of Database. Title of Part; [Date of Update (if applicable); Date of Citation of Part]; Availability

Lexicomp Online

Specific database. Lexicomp [Internet]. Hudson, OH: Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. 1978-. Monograph, topic, or chart name; [cited Year Abbr Mo Day]. Available from: http://online.lexi.com

Example
Lexi-Drugs. Lexicomp [Internet].  Hudson, OH: Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. 1978-2019. Acetaminophen; [2019 Mar 1]. Available from: http://online.lexi.com

Micromedex

Specific database. Micromedex [Internet]. Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics, Inc. Year of copyright. Title of Monograph or document; [cited Year Abbr Mo Day]. Available from: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com

Example
DRUGDEX. Micromedex [Internet]. Greenwood Village, CO: Truven Health Analytics, Inc. 2019. Infliximab; [2019 Mar 1]. Available from: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com

Clinical Pharmacology

Gold Standard, Inc. Clinical Pharmacology [Internet]. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. Year of copyright. Title of Monograph or document; [cited Year Abbr Mo Day]. Available from: https://www.clinicalkey.com/pharmacology/

Example
Gold Standard, Inc. Clinical Pharmacology [Internet]. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. 2019. Amoxicillin 125mg Chewable Tablet; [2019 Mar 1]. Available from: https://www.clinicalkey.com/pharmacology/

Natural Medicines

Specific database. Natural Medicines [Internet]. Somerville, MA: Natural Medicines. Year of copyright. Title of Monograph or document; [cited Year Abbr Mo Day]. Available from: https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/ 

Example
Foods, Herbs & Supplements. Natural Medicines [Internet]. Somerville, MA: Natural Medicines. 2019. Aloe; [2019 Mar 1]. Available from: https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/

UpToDate

Author(s). UpToDate [Internet]. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Year of copyright. Title of Part; [Date of Update (if applicable); Date of Citation of Part]. Available from: http://www.uptodate.com/

Example
Pichler, WJ. UpToDate [Internet]. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. 2019. Drug hypersensitivity: Classification and clinical features; [updated 2019 Feb 18; 2019 Mar 1]. Available from: http://www.uptodate.com/

Drug Information Portal

The Drug Information Portal connects users to information from a variety of sources. When citing information from this website make sure you cite from the website or database it leads you to, such as DailyMed or ClinicalTrials.gov.

Print and Electronic Journal Articles

For additional information about citing this type of resource please see Chapter 1 and Chapter 23 of Citing Medicine. You can also view Articles in Journals or #36 in Electronic Material from NLM Samples of Formatted References.

Print Journal Article

Author(s). Article Title. Journal Title. Date of Publication; Volume number(Issue number):Location (pagination).

Example

Single Author
Barrett-Connor E. Why women have less heart disease than men and how diabetes modifies women's usual cardiac protection: A 40-year Rancho Bernardo Cohort Study. Glob Heart. 2013 Jun 1; 8(2):95-104.

Multiple Authors
Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of noninferiority trials. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jul 4; 145(1):62-9.

Electronic Journal Article

Author(s). Article Title. Journal Title [Type of Medium]. Date of Publication [Date of Citation]; Volume number(Issue number):Location. Availability or doi.

Examples

Single Author
Barrett-Connor E. Why women have less heart disease than men and how diabetes modifies women's usual cardiac protection: A 40-year Rancho Bernardo Cohort Study. Glob Heart [Internet]. 2013 Jun 1 [cited 2013 Oct 22]; 8(2):95-104. Available from: http://www.globalheart-journal.com/article/S2211-8160(12)00262-1/

Barrett-Connor E. Why women have less heart disease than men and how diabetes modifies women's usual cardiac protection: A 40-year Rancho Bernardo Cohort Study. Glob Heart [Internet]. 2013 Jun 1 [cited 2013 Oct 22]; 8(2):95-104. doi:10.1016/j.gheart.2012.12.002

Multiple Authors
Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of noninferiority trials. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2006 Jul 4 [cited 2013 Oct 22]; 145(1):62-9. Available from: http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/145/1/62.pdf

Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of noninferiority trials. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2006 Jul 4 [cited 2013 Oct 22]; 145(1):62-9. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-145-1-200607040-00011.

Books and Book Chapters

For additional information about citing this type of resource please see Chapter 2 and Chapter 22 of the book Citing Medicine. You can also view Books and Other Monographs from NLM Samples of Formatted References.

Entire Book

Author(s) or Editor(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of Publication or copyright.

Example

Single Author
Jenkins PF. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005

Multiple Authors
Bryant PJ, Pace HA. Pharmacist's guide to evidence-based medicine for clinical decision making. Bethesda, MD: ASHP; 2008.

Part of a Book

Author(s). Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of Publication or copyright. Name and number/letter of part, Title of part; Location of part.

Examples

Single Author
Roach M. Stiff: The curious lives of human cadavers. New York: W. W. Norton & Company; 2004. Chapter 7, Holy Cadaver: The crucifixion experiments; p. 157-166.

Multiple Authors
Reed JG, Baxter PM. Library use: handbook for psychology. 3rd ed. Washington: American Psychological Association; c2003. Chapter 2, Selecting and defining the topic; p. 11-25.

Contribution to a Book

Author(s) of contribution. Title of Contribution. In: Editor(s). Title of Book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of Publication or copyright. Pagination.

Examples

Single Author
Ballard J. Theories underlying interprofessional education. In: Edwards ME., editors. Interprofessional education and medical libraries: Partnering for success. New York: Rowan & Littlefield; c2016. p. 13-35.

Multiple Authors
Erin JN, Fazzi DL, Gordon RL, Isenberg SJ, Paysse EA. Vision focus: understanding the medical and functional implications of vision loss. In: Pogrund RL, Fazzi DL., editors. Early focus: working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families. 2nd ed. New York: AFB Press; c2002. p. 52-106.

Entire Online Book

Author(s) or Editor(s). Title [Type of medium]. Edition or version. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of Publication or copyright [Date update/revision (if applicable); Date of citation]. Location or pagination of part. Availability

Example

Single Author
Hopkins WA. Complete math review for the pharmacy technician [Internet]. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C. : American Pharmacists Association; 2010 [Cited 2013 Oct 22]. 231 p. Available from: http://www.pharmacylibrary.com/resource/14

Multiple Authors
Collins SR, Kriss JL, Davis K, Doty MM, Holmgren AL. Squeezed: why rising exposure to health care costs threatens the health and financial well-being of American families [Internet]. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Sep [cited 2013 Oct 22]. 34 p. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/Collins_squeezedrisinghltcarecosts_953.pdf

Online Part of a Book

Author(s) or Editor(s). Title [Type of medium]. Edition or version. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of Publication or copyright. Name and number/letter of part, Title of part; [Date update/revision (if applicable); Date of citation]; Location or pagination of part. Availability

Examples

Single Author
Hopkins WA. Complete math review for the pharmacy technician [Internet]. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C. : American Pharmacists Association; 2010. Chapter 13, Medication errors and clinical challenges; [Cited 2013 Oct 22]. Available from: http://www.pharmacylibrary.com/resource/14

Multiple Authors
Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions [Internet]. Version 4.2.6. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2006 [updated 2006 Sep]. Chapter 3, Guide to the contents of a protocol and review; [cited 2006 Nov 17]; p. 37-57. Available from: http://www.cochrane.org/resources/handbook/handbook.pdf

Online Contribution to a Book

Author(s) of contribution. Title of Contribution. In: Editor(s). Title [Type of medium]. Edition or version. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of Publication or copyright. Name and number/letter of part, Title of part; [Date update/revision (if applicable); Date of citation]; Location or pagination of part. Availability

Examples

Single Author
Scolaro KL. Colds and allergy. In: Krinsky DL, Ferreri SP, Hemstreet B, Hume AL, Newton GD, Rollins CJ, Tietze KJ. Handbook of nonprescription drugs: An interactive approach to self-care [Internet]. 19th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association; c2018 [cited 2018 Aug 24]. Available from: https://pharmacylibrary.com/doi/book/10.21019/9781582122656

Multiple Authors
Moore A, Moore J, Fowler S. Faculty development for the Net Generation. In: Oblinger DG, Oblinger JL, editors. Educating the Net Generation [Internet]. Boulder (CO): EDUCAUSE; c2005 [cited 2018 Aug 31]. [about 9 p.]. Available from: http://www.educause.edu/FacultyDevelopmentfortheNetGeneration/6071

Package Inserts

Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers does not contain specific information about how to cite package insert. Please use the following format.

Drug name [package insert]. Place of publication: Manufacturer’s name; Year of publication.

Example
Albuterol [package insert]. West Roxbury, MA: Armstrong Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2007.

Websites

For additional information about citing this type of resource please see Chapter 25 of the book Citing Medicine or #38 and #39 in Electronic Material from NLM Samples of Formatted References.

Entire Website

Author(s)[If Applicable]. Title of Homepage [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher. Date of Publication of Homepage. [Location or pagination of part (if applicable)]. Availability

Examples

DailyMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2002 - . [cited 2019 Mar 1]. Available from: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/

Part of a Website

Author(s)[If Applicable]. Title of Homepage [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher. Date of Publication of Homepage. Title of Part; Date of Publication of Part [Date of update/revision (if applicable); Date of Citation of Part]; [Location or pagination of part (if applicable)]. Availability

Examples

DailyMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2002 - . Antidote [Drug Class]; [cited 2019 Mar 1]. Available from: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/